THERMAL COMFORT

We have technical manuals covering a range of areas in clay brick design and construction. Popular manuals include the Clay Masonry Cleaning Manual and Clay Paver Coping on Concrete Pools Manual.

This publication contains recommendations by Think Brick Australia for the use of clay pavers in flexible and rigid pavements. It also has information on the specification, design, installation and maintenance of clay pavements.
TBA 01 - Clay Paving Manual Download Manual
This manual discusses the properties of clay masonry units including definitions, physical properties such as strength, durability, dimensions, tolerances and resistance to salt attack. Other properties such as thermal expansion, absorption properties and soluble salts in masonry are also discussed.
TBA 02 – The Properties of Clay Masonry Units Download Manual
This manual provides information regarding the usage of piers to reinforce freestanding walls to better withstand wind loads. The manual details material specifications, design theory as well as common practice methods.
Design of Free-Standing Clay Brick Walls Download Manual
This manual is designed to be a general reference guide, covering most topics relevant to the usage of clay bricks and pavers.
TBA 19 - Industry Reference Guide Download Manual
TBA 09 provides information on detailing of clay masonry in buildings. In particular detailing different walling systems and calculations related to these structures. It should be noted that while this manual provides guidelines to some systems, TBA recognises that alternative methods exist, it should also be noted that specific dimensions used in examples are indicative only. Structural engineers should be consulted for calculations and specifications. For more information this manual should be used in conjunction with AS3700 and AS2870.
TBA 09 – Detailing of Clay masonry Download Manual
TBA 07 provides information on the considerations taken during the manufacturing of clay masonry products with the intent for longevity. It details causes of cracking, as well as preventative and repair actions.
TBA 07 – Design of Clay Masonry for Serviceability Download Manual
In the design of clay masonry walls the requirements for fire resistance are expressed as a Fire Resistance Level (FRL), which is given in the Building Code of Australia (BCA) for three criteria being structural adequacy, integrity and insulation. This manual provides guidance in accordance with AS 3700 on determining each FRL.
TBA 05 – Design of Clay Masonry for Fire Resistance Download Manual
TBA11 provides information on the National Construction Code (NCC) requirements regarding sound insulation. This manual defines and provides information on sound classifications, specifications of different walling systems that may be used.
TBA 11 - Design of Clay Masonry for Sound Insulation Download Manual
This manual follows the procedures set out in AS 3700 for the design of unreinforced clay masonry to resist compressive forces, covering the general arrangement of load- bearing masonry structures, material properties for clay masonry, design procedures for vertical loading, design for concentrated loads, and composite action between walls and beams. Design charts for vertical loading and worked examples for typical cases are included.
TBA 06 – Design of Clay Masonry for Compression Download Manual
TBA08 provides information on the sustainability of the brick manufacturing process and product from an environmental and energy efficiency perspective. As well as, how the use of bricks can be advantageous when designing projects with sustainability in mind.
TBA 08 – Sustainability and Energy Efficiency Download Manual
This manual focuses on the planning, design, material selection and building details for brick houses within bushfire-prone areas.
TBA 15 - Building in Bushfire Prone Areas Download Manual
This manual provides general recommendations on paver coping of concrete pools, this includes information on paver selection and mortar levelling.
Clay Paver Coping on Concrete Pools Download Manual
This manual provides recommendations of good practice in construction; in particular, construction requirements of materials, workmanship, tolerances, temporary bracing, site control testing and compliance assessment.
TBA 10 – Construction Guidelines for Clay Masonry Download Manual
This manual provides information used to identify and clean common stains found in clay masonry only, as well as, methods that can be used during construction to minimise staining. This guide should not be used for other masonry materials.
TBA 13 - Clay Masonry Cleaning Manual Download Manual
This technical note covers bricklaying aspects that may be frequently overlooked. This technical note presumes that the reader is familiar with handling bricks and mortar; for those not familiar it is recommended they attend a bricklaying and/or paving course before attempting projects of any magnitude.
TBA 14 - Brickwork in Landscape Download Manual
This manual provides guidance for the design of unreinforced clay masonry to resist wind and earthquake forces. It applies to all structural forms using masonry-veneer walls, cavity walls or single-leaf walls. Material covered includes general arrangement of structures, specific design procedures for out-of-plane lateral loading and in-plane shear loading, and design detailing of ties, connections and joints.
TBA 04 – Design of Clay Masonry for Wind and Earthquake Download Manual
This manual provides discussion points for builders and homeowners to consider when undertaking construction using bricks.
TBA 20 - The Brickwork Manual Download Manual

THINK SOUND INSULATION

We offer a selection of general references that include Brick Tales: The Story of Brick and also the very popular Industry Reference Guide which is an invaluable source of information on brick.

This reference provides a brief introduction to the partnership between bricks and the development of Australian construction.
TBA – Brick Tales Download Manual
This guide uses regulated standards to provide direction on non-regulated aspects of domestic building construction. This guide covers issues that are often of concern to building owners and builders.
TBA – Guide to Standards and Tolerances Download Manual
This manual provides information on the process of manufacturing extruded and dry pressed bricks.
TBA - How Bricks are Made Download Manual

DURABILITY

We care about the environment, and we have lead research in brick design to aid architects, engineers and manufacturers by providing sustainable design methods to maximise thermal comfort and energy efficiency in households.

This report details how the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme and the Building Code of Australia interact, and the effects this has had on the housing market.
TBA 21 - Wasting Energy Download Manual
This manual provides information on the current state of industry knowledge regarding clay masonry performance related to energy efficiency and Australian environmental factors. It provides general recommendations, which should be taken into account during the design process.
TBA 17 - Energy Efficiency and Environment Edition 4 Download Manual
This manual provides guidance on the selection, design and use of clay brick masonry in construction from a sustainability perspective where sustainability is defined as the development that meets the needs of the present without adversely affection the needs of the future.
TBA – Sustainability and Energy Efficiency Download Manual
This study details an investigation conducted by Think Brick Australia in partnership with the University of Newcastle. The aim of this study was to understand the thermal performance of housing systems. The study finds that hybrid walling systems show the most potential to improve thermal performance in certain situations.
TBA – A study of the thermal Performance of Australian Housing Download Manual

SUSTAINABILITY

Our range of case studies include projects conducted in several areas across Australia.

This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Kalyra Aged Care Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
St Bernards Older Persons Housing Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Applewood Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Barker College Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Corpus Christi Seminary Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Eastern TAFE Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Genazzano College Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Hunter Institute Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Loreto Normanhurst Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Macquarie Uni E3A Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Pymble Ladies College Library Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Pymble Ladies College Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Qld Uni Laboratory Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Scotch College Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Sydney Institute Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Boags Brewery Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Watergardens Railway Station Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Wodonga Courts Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Peninsula Hospital Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Wyndham Health Service Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Castle Towers Shopping Centre Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Dillwynia Correctional Centre Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Roma Mitchell Arts Centre Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Comaltech House Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Coptic Orthodox Church Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Latter Day Saints Church Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Boston Courthouse Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
St Ives Centro Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Swan Brewery Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Barker St Apartments Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Capitol Apartments Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Fletcher Mews Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
McCaffreys Tower Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Meira House Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Moore Park Gardens Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
One Wallace Avenue Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Garden City Shopping Centre Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Inglewood Civic Centre Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Knox O-Zone Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Loxton High School Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Ulverstone CBD Paving Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Mandurah Marina Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Mt Buller Village Square Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Show Garden Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
St Stephens School Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Tamworth CBD Paving Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Vic Streetscape Redevelopments Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Rooke Street Mall Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
Tassie Streetscape Redevelopments Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
The Brick Show Download Manual
This section provides a brief overview of bricklaying techniques and designs that have stood out across the country. The selected buildings have been taken from across a number of different contexts, from aged care, educational, commercial, multi-housing or paving and landscaping.
WA Streetscape Redevelopments Download Manual

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Think Brick Australia have conducted extensive research and have produced Research Papers covering many aspects of clay brick design and construction. Research Findings cover General Masonry and Paving Design, Material Characteristic, Moisture Expansion, Durability and Thermal Performance and Climate Design.

This research paper looks to investigate the performance of clay segmental pavers within normal traffic conditions, with the purpose of identifying if they are an appropriate alternative to interlocking designs. The experiment utilises a pull out test to observe ‘doming’. The paper observes that sand grading has a significant impact on the paver performance.
RP 12 – The Performance of Clay Segmental Pavers Download Manual
This research paper looks investigates how design effects the usage of unreinforced masonry in Australia. The paper also addresses modern (2002) seismic loading provisions on existing practices.
RP 15 – Unreinforced Masonry Structures – An Australian Overview Download Manual
This research paper reports the findings of a series of experiments designed to encourage the development of a technique to identify deterioration of clay bodies by salt attack. In particular, cold water absorption, Rockwell hardness test, salt cycling as well as moisture expansion were examined.
RP 08 – Assessment of the Salt Attack Resistance of Fired Clay Bricks Download Manual
This research paper examines the compressive testing methods of dry pressed and extruded bricks, as well as, detailing exceptions that may be made for extruded bricks due to their higher strength values.
RP 07 – Determining Compressive Strength of Clay Bricks Download Manual
This research paper details the findings of a statistical analysis of brick wall compressive strength and how they correlate with values used to predict strength i.e. single unit brick compressive strength and brickwork prism specimens.
RP 03 – Predicting the Compressive Strength of Brickwork Download Manual
This research paper explores the physical properties of bricks and how these may affect frost resistance.
RP 06 – Frost Resistance Download Manual
This research paper examines the method of accelerating moisture expansion in fired clay bodies for testing purposes.
RP 00 – Predicting Moisture Expansion Download Manual
This research paper investigates a method of determining unrestricted expansion over of fired clay bricks over a course of 30 years.
RP 17 – Predicting 30 year Moisture Expansion Download Manual
This paper discusses the options for controlling brickwork movement caused by moisture expansion within structures, both vertically and laterally.
RP 09 – Moisture Expansion an Appraisal Download Manual
This research paper identifies a testing method suitable for non-kiln-fresh bricks when determining moisture expansion.
RP 11 – Determining the Expansion of Non-Kiln-Fresh Bricks Download Manual
This research paper investigates the tolerance that should be given in order to account for differential movements within a structure caused by moisture expansion.
RP 16 – Moisture Expansion of Bricks & Walls Download Manual
This research paper investigates the durability of mortar by examining its physical properties and composition. The examination utilises AS3700 scratch test as a measurement of hardness.
RP 21 – An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Durability of Masonry Mortar Download Manual
This research paper investigates the relationship between salt attack resistance and several physical properties of clay bricks; in particular, salt cycling, Rockwell hardness, total porosity, as well as, pore size distribution.
RP 10 – A study of Pore Size Distributions in Fired Clay Bricks in Relation to Salt Attack Resistance Download Manual
This research paper details a comparative study conducted by the University of Newcastle aiming to gain a better understanding thermal performance of veneer and cavity wall systems.
RP 18 – Thermal Performance of Cavity and Veneer Construction Download Manual
This research paper details the results of a 4 year study conducted by the University of Newcastle in conjunction with the Clay Brick and Paver Institute focussing on the thermal performance of masonry construction within Australian climates. This study considers the effect of windows within a cavity construction and the dynamic of bi-directional heat.
RP 19 – Heat Flow Study in Masonry Walls Download Manual
This research paper details a comparative study conducted by the University of Newcastle aiming to gain a better understanding thermal performance of veneer and cavity wall systems.
RP 20 – Thermal Performance of Cavity and Veneer Construction Download Manual
This research paper utilises long term averages of weather conditions to assist with matching appropriate building and planning strategies to the relevant regional environments.
RP 22 – Understanding Climate for Energy Efficient or Sustainable Design Download Manual
This research paper details the findings of a CSIRO study using AccuRate energy rating tools. This study considered Cavity Brick, Brick Veneers, Reverse Brick Veneer and Light Weight constructions. A correlation between thermal mass and a reduction in energy consumption was found, particularly in the case where an envelope of insulation was provided I.e. RBV and CB constructions.
RP 23 – Thermal Performance Study of Construction Methods Download Manual

FIRE-PROOF

The Guide to Standards and Tolerances published by the Victorian Building Authority is intended to be used by builders and building owners as a convenient reference to the minimum quality of building work expected. The Guide is a valuable tool that will provide guidance for areas of building standards that are not prescribed in legislation, building control and/or policy.

This guide is intended to be used by builders and building owners as a convenient reference to the minimum quality of building work to be expected. The guide is a valuable tool that will provide guidance for areas of building standards that are not prescribed in legislation, building control and/or policy.
Guide to Standards & Tolerances Download Manual